Nearly half of the world’s endangered sea turtle populations nest in the northern Indian Ocean, according to a study by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) released today.
“Five of the world’s eleven most threatened species of sea turtles are found in the northern Indian Ocean,” it said in a statement.
The biggest threats come from “accidental catches of sea turtles by fishermen targeting other species, and the direct harvest of turtles or their eggs for food or turtle shell material for commercial use,” it said.
Populations at risk of dying out include olive ridley turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) which nest in Oman, India and Sri Lanka; loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) in Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Myanmar; and hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) in India, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh.
Other endangered turtle populations can be found nesting in the coasts of West Africa, Central America and Japan, the IUCN said.
Australia is the world’s happiest turtle breeding ground, hosting four of the world’s 12 healthiest nesting populations, it added.
Shaolin monks and disciples follow a unique practice among Buddhists in that they greet each other using only their right hand. This greeting is a tradition which dates back to Da Mo and his disciple, Hui Ke.
In 495 AD, the Indian monk Ba Tuo, or Buddhabhadra, came to China teaching a form of Buddhism known as Xiao Sheng Buddhism. He was given land at the foot of Shaoshi mountain by Emperor Shao Wen and founded the Shaolin Temple on this land.
Around the time that Ba Tuo was founding the Shaolin Temple there was an Indian prince named Bodhidharma. Bodhidharma was very intelligent and was the favorite son of the king of India. Bodhidharma had two older brothers who feared that their father, the king, would pass them over and bequeath the kingship to Bodhidharma. In their jealousy, the two older brothers often disparaged Bodhidharma while talking with their father, hoping to turn him against their younger brother. The older brothers also attempted to assassinate Bodhidharma but Bodhidharma had very good karma and so the attempts were not successful. Despite being the favorite son of the king, Bodhidharma realized that he was not interested in a life of politics. He chose instead to study with the famous Buddhist master Prajnatara and become a Buddhist monk.
Bodhidharma trained with his master for many years. One day he asked his master, “Master, when you pass away, where should I go? What should I do?” His master replied that he should go to Zhen Dan, which was the name for China at that time. Years later, Bodhidharma’s master passed away and Bodhidharma prepared to leave for China.
During the many years that Bodhidharma had studied as a monk, one of his older brothers had become king of India and that older brother’s son had become king after him. The king of India was very fond of his uncle and wanted to make amends for the actions which Bodhidharma’s older brothers had taken against him. He asked Bodhidharma to stay near the capital, where he could protect and care for him, but Bodhidharma knew that he must go to China as his master had said.
Seeing that Bodhidharma would not remain, the king of India ordered that carrier pigeons be sent to China with messages asking the people of China to take care of Bodhidharma. These messages made Bodhidharma famous among many Chinese who wondered what was so special about this particular Buddhist monk that the king of India would make such a request.
In 527 AD, 32 years after Ba Tuo’s founding of the Shaolin temple, Bodhidharma crossed through Guangdong province into China. In China, he was known as Da Mo. Da Mo arrived in China practicing Da Sheng (Mahayana) Buddhism. When Da Mo arrived, he was greeted by a large crowd of people who had heard of the famous Buddhist master and wished to hear him speak. Rather than speak, Da Mo sat down and began meditating. He meditated for many hours. Upon completing his meditation, Da Mo rose and walked away, saying nothing.
His actions had a profound effect upon his audience. Some people laughed, some cried, some were angry and some nodded their heads in understanding. Regardless of the emotion, everyone in the crowd had a reaction.
This incident made Da Mo even more famous, so famous that Emperor Wu heard of him. Emperor Wu, who ruled over the southern kingdom of China, invited Da Mo to come to his palace. When Da Mo arrived, Emperor Wu talked with Da Mo about Buddhism. The emperor had erected many statues and temples devoted to Buddhism. He had given much wealth to Buddhist temples. In talking of his accomplishments, Emperor Wu asked Da Mo if his actions were good. Da Mo replied that they were not. This response surprised Emperor Wu, but they continued talking and eventually Emperor Wu asked Da Mo if there was Buddha in this world. Da Mo replied that there was not.
Da Mo’s replies were a reflection of Emperor Wu. By asking if his actions were good, Emperor Wu was searching for compliments and affirmation from Da Mo. Da Mo denied that Emperor Wu’s actions were good because it is the duty of the emperor to care for his people. Rather than seeking compliments, Emperor Wu should have been content to help his people through Buddha. Similarly, if one asks if there is Buddha in the world, then one has already answered the question: Buddha is a matter of faith, you either believe in your heart or you do not. In questioning the existence of Buddha, Emperor Wu had demonstrated a lack of faith.
Da Mo’s answers enraged Emperor Wu and he ordered Da Mo to leave his palace and never return. Da Mo simply smiled, turned and left.
Da Mo continued his journey, heading north, when he reached the city of Nanjing. In the city of Nanjing, there was a famous place called the Flower Rain Pavillion where many people gathered to speak and relax. There was a large crowd of people gathered in the Flower Rain Pavillion around a Buddhist monk, who was lecturing. This Buddhist monk was named Shen Guang.
Shen Guang had at one time been a famous general. He had killed many people in battle but one day realized that the people he had been killing had family and friends and that one day someone might come and kill him. This changed him and he decided to train as a Buddhist monk. Eventually, Shen Guang became a great speaker on Buddhism. As Da Mo neared the crowd, he listened to Shen Guang’s speech. Sometimes Shen Guang would speak and Da Mo would nod his head, as if in agreement. Sometimes Shen Guang would speak and Da Mo would shake his head, as if in disagreement. As this continued, Shen Guang became very angry at the strange foreign monk who dared to disagree with him in front of this crowd. In anger, Shen Guang took the Buddhist beads from around his neck and flicked them at Da Mo. The beads struck Da Mo in his face, knocking out two of his front teeth. Da Mo immediately began bleeding. Shen Guang expected a confrontation; instead, Da Mo smiled, turned and walked away.
This reaction astounded Shen Guang, who began following after Da Mo.
Da Mo continued north until he reached the Yangzi river. Seated by the river there was an old woman with a large bundle of reeds next to her. Da Mo walked up to the old woman and asked her if he might have a reed. She replied that he might. Da Mo took a single reed, placed it upon the surface of the Yangzi river and stepped onto the reed. He was carried across the Yangzi river by the force of his chi. Seeing this, Shen Guang ran up to where the old woman sat and grabbed a handful of reeds without asking. He threw the reeds onto the Yangzi river and stepped onto them. The reeds sank beneath him and Shen Guang began drowning. The old woman saw his plight and took pity on Shen Guang, pulling him from the river. As Shen Guang lay on the ground coughing up river water, the old woman admonished him. She said that by not asking for her reeds before taking them, he had shown her disrespect and that by disrespecting her, Shen Guang had disrespected himself. The old woman also told Shen Guang that he had been searching for a master and that Da Mo, the man he was following, was that master. As she said this, the reeds which had sunk beneath Shen Guang rose again to the surface of the river and Shen Guang found himself on the reeds being carried across the Yangzi river. He reached the other side and continued following after Da Mo.
There are many people who believe that the old woman by the river was a Boddhisatva who was helping Shen Guang to end the cycle of his samsara.
At this point, Da Mo was nearing the location of the Shaolin Temple. The Shaolin monks had heard of his approach and were gathered to meet him. When Da Mo arrived, the Shaolin monks greeted him and invited him to come stay at the temple. Da Mo did not reply but he went to a cave on a mountain behind the Shaolin Temple, sat down, and began meditating. In front of the Shaolin Temple, there are five mountains: Bell Mountain, Drum Mountain, Sword Mountain, Stamp Mountain and Flag Mountain. These mountains are named after the objects which their shape resembles. Behind the Shaolin Temple there are five “Breast Mountains” which are shaped like breasts. The cave in which Da Mo chose to meditate was on one of the Breast Mountains.
Da Mo sat facing a wall in the cave and meditated for nine years. During these nine years, Shen Guang stayed outside Da Mo’s cave and acted as a bodyguard for Da Mo, ensuring that no harm came to Da Mo. Periodically Shen Guang would ask Da Mo to teach him, but Da Mo never responded to Shen Guang’s requests. During these nine years the Shaolin monks would also periodically invite Da Mo to come down to the Temple, where he would be much more comfortable, but Da Mo never responded. After some time, Da Mo’s concentration became so intense that his image was engraved into the stone of the wall before him.
Towards the end of the nine years, the Shaolin monks decided that they must do something more for Da Mo and so they made a special room for him. They called this room the Da Mo Ting. When this room was completed at the end of the nine years, the Shaolin monks invited Da Mo to come stay in the room. Da Mo did not respond but he stood up, walked down to the room, sat down, and immediately began meditating. Shen Guang followed Da Mo to the Shaolin temple and stood guard outside Da Mo’s room. Da Mo meditated in his room for another four years. Shen Guang would occasionally ask Da Mo to teach him, but Da Mo never responded.
At the end of the four-year period Shen Guang had been following Da Mo for thirteen years, but Da Mo had never said anything to Shen Guang. It was winter when the four-year period was ending and Shen Guang was standing in the snow outside the window to Da Mo’s room. He was cold and became very angry. He picked up a large block of snow and ice and hurled it into Da Mo’s room. The snow and ice made a loud noise as it broke inside Da Mo’s room. This noise awoke Da Mo from his meditation and he looked at Shen Guang. In anger and frustration Shen Guang demanded to know when Da Mo would teach him.
Da Mo responded that he would teach Shen Guang when red snow fell from the sky.
Hearing this, something inside Shen Guang’s heart changed and he took the sword he carried from his belt and cut off his left arm. He held the severed arm above his head and whirled it around. The blood from the arm froze in the cold air and fell like red snow. Seeing this, Da Mo agreed to teach Shen Guang.
Da Mo took a monk’s spade and went with Shen Guang to the Drum Mountain in front of Shaolin Temple. The Drum Mountain is so called because it is very flat on top. Da Mo’s unspoken message to Shen Guang was that Shen Guang should flatten his heart, just like the surface of the Drum Mountain. On this Drum Mountain Da Mo dug a well. The water of this well was bitter. Da Mo then left Shen Guang on the Drum Mountain. For an entire year, Shen Guang used the bitter water of the well to take care of all of his needs. He used it to cook, to clean, to bathe, to do everything. At the end of the first year, Shen Guang went down to Da Mo and again asked Da Mo to teach him. Da Mo returned with Shen Guang to the Drum Mountain and dug a second well. The water of this well was spicy. For an entire year, Shen Guang used the spicy water for all of his needs. At the end of the second year, Shen Guang went back down to Da Mo and asked again to be taught. Da Mo dug a third well on the Drum Mountain. The water of this third well was sour. For the third year, Shen Guang used the sour water for all of his needs. At the end of the third year, Shen Guang returned to Da Mo and agains asked to be taught. Da Mo returned to the Drum Mountain and dug a fourth and final well. The water of this well was sweet. At this point, Shen Guang realized that the four wells represented his life. Like the wells, his life would sometimes be bitter, sometimes sour, sometimes spicy and sometimes sweet. Each of these phases in his life was equally beautiful and necessary, just as each of the four seasons of the year is beautiful and necessary in its own way. Without really saying many words to Shen Guang, Da Mo had taught Shen Guang the most important of lessons in a mind-to-mind, heart-to-heart fashion. This mind-to- mind, heart-to-heart communication is called “action language” and is the foundation of the Chan Buddhism which Da Mo began at the Shaolin Temple.
After his realization, Shen Guang was given the name Hui Ke and he became abbot of the Shaolin temple after Da Mo.
To pay respect for the sacrifice which Hui Ke made, disciples and monks of the Shaolin Temple greet each other using only their right hand.
A story which can be titled as a man on the moon, first man on moon or man landing on the moon, whatever it is named, one would recall a historic moment. Man on the moon was thought as a fairy tail story once, but after advancement in field of astronomy. Apollo 11 Launched on July 16, 1969, the third lunar mission of NASA’s Apollo Program was crewed by Commander, the first man on moon Neil Alden Armstrong, Command Module Pilot Michael Collins, and Lunar Module Pilot Edwin Eugene ‘Buzz’ Aldrin, Jr.
Man on moon date isJuly 20 and Man on moon year is 1969when the first man on moon Neil Armstrongand Aldrin became the first humans to land on the Moon, while Collins orbited in the Command Module. So finally man walk on moon was an imaginable concept.
Furthermore, see Nasa man on moon and Man on moon photos. These all are high Quality pictures, you must click on the pictures to see the enlarged version of it.
Man on moon Picture 1
With two currently functioning orbiters, and five more missions planned in the next year, Earth’s Moon may soon have seven active probes operated by five nations, with even more coming soon. NASA’s plans to return humans to the Moon by 2020 are moving steadily ahead, with some concrete prototypes and initial designs beginning to emerge. Called the Constellation Program, NASA’s vision involves new and upgraded launch vehicles, exploration vehicles, autonomous rovers, new spacesuits, crew and cargo vehicles, and much more. Here are seven photographs of our possible future on the Moon, and a look back, with ten images from our last visits with the Apollo missions, more than 36 years ago now
Man on moon Picture 2
Looking Forward — Spacesuit engineer Dustin Gohmert drives NASA’s new lunar truck prototype through the moon-like craters of Johnson Space Center’s Lunar Yard. The lunar truck was built to make such off roading easy, with six wheels that can be steered independently in any direction. In addition, the steering center can turn a full 360 degree, giving the driver a good view of what’s ahead, no matter which way the wheels are pointing. (NASA/JSC)
Man on moon Picture 3
During field tests near Moses Lake, WA, NASA’s Autonomous Drilling Rover demonstrated dark autonomous nagivation with a light detection and ranging system. (NASA)
The Crew Mobility Chassis Prototype is NASA’s new concept for a lunar truck. Researchers were trying it out at Moses Lake, WA, as part of a series of tests of lunar surface concepts. One feature is its high mobility. Each set of wheels can pivot individually in any direction, giving the vehicle the ability to drive sideways, forward, backward and any direction in between — important if the truck becomes mired in lunar dust needs to zigzag down a steep crater wall or parallel park at its docking station. (NASA)
Man on moon Picture 4
NASA’s ATHLETE (All-Terrain Hex-Legged Extra-Terrestrial Explorer) robotic vehicle seen during field tests near Moses Lake, WA. Athlete could be the RV of choice for future explorers. Its multi-wheeled dexterity could allow robots or humans to load, transport, manipulate and deposit payloads to essentially any desired site on the lunar surface. (NASA)
Man on moon Picture 5
NASA’s lunar truck during field tests near Moses Lake, WA. Whatever direction the lunar truck is headed, the driver has a good view.. The astronauts’ perches can pivot 360 degrees. The whole wehicle can be lowered to the ground for easy access in bulky spacesuits. (NASA)
Man on moon Picture 6
Testing a critical Launch Abort System. NASA and Alliant Techsystems (ATK) performed an igniter test of the Orion Launch Abort System at ATK’s Promontory Facility on June 13, which lasted for approximately 150 milliseconds. The igniter was just over 36 inches tall and was the first time the newly developed igniter had been tested. Its purpose is to ignite the primary motor on the LAS that pulls the capsule away during an emergency on the pad or during launch. (NASA and Alliant Techsystems)
Man on moon Picture 7
A mock-up of the NASA’s new Orion space capsule heads to its temporary home in a hangar at NASA’s Langley Research Center in Hampton, Va. In late 2008, the full-size structural model will be jettisoned off a simulated launch pad at the U.S. Army’s White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico to test the spacecraft’s astronaut escape system, which will ensure a safe, reliable method of escape for astronauts in case of an emergency. NASA’s Constellation program is building the Orion crew vehicle to carry humans to the International Space Station by 2015 and to the moon beginning in 2020. (NASA/Sean Smith)
Man on moon Picture 8
And Looking Back — A view of the Moon’s surface taken from lunar orbit in the summer of 1971. Apollo 15 was the ninth manned mission to the Moon. (NASA)
Man on moon Picture 9
April 20, 1972 – Apollo 16. A view from the Landing Module, looking toward the Command and Service Module with Earth over the lunar horizon. Astronauts John Young and Charles Duke took this shot as they piloted the LM down to the lunar surface. (NASA)
Man on moon Picture 10
Also April 20, 1972 – The Command and Service Module named “Casper” viewed from the Lunar Module shortly after undocking. Astronaut Ken Mattingly stayed aboard the CSM while the LM went to the surface – orbiting over 60 times, and performing twenty-six separate scientific experiments. (NASA)
Man on moon Picture 11
December 10, 1972 – Apollo 17. A tiny, distant Command and Service Module seen above the Taurus-Littrow landing site photographed from the Lunar Module as it descended to the Moon – the last time Men would set foot on the lunar surface. (NASA)
Man on moon Picture 12
December, 1972 – Apollo 17. Astronaut Eugene Cernan drives the final Lunar Rover (of 3 total) sent to the Moon. Also seen is one leg of the Lunar Module, at right. (NASA)
Man on moon Picture 13
December, 1972 – Apollo 17. Astronaut Harrison Schmitt near the Lunar Rover at Shorty crater. (NASA)
Man on moon Picture 14
April, 1972 – Apollo 16. Astronaut Charles Duke’s family portrait, laid on the lunar surface. Pictured are Charles and Dotty Duke, and their sons Charles, 7, and Tom, 5. (NASA)
Man on moon Picture 15
July 21, 1969 – Apollo 11. The Lunar Module approaches the Command and Service Module for docking, with earthrise in background. Aboard the LM were astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, returning from a 21-hour stay on the Moon – the first Moon landing by Man. (NASA)
Man on moon Picture 16
December, 1972 – Apollo 17. Astronaut Jack Schmitt took this telephoto picture of the Lunar Module, seen from a distance of about two miles (3.1 km). For an idea of scale, the Lunar Module is about 24 feet tall (7 meters). (Image is a combination of AS17-139-21204 and AS17-139-21203 – credit: NASA)
viewed from Apollo 17 (NASA)
The mighty Incan Empire of South America
The mighty Incan Empire of South America flourished between 1200 and 1535 AD. They developed drainage systems and canals to expand their crops, and built stone cities atop steep mountains such as Machu Picchu (above) without ever inventing the wheel. Despite their vast achievements, the Incan Empire with its 40,000 manned army was no match for 180 Spanish conquistadors armed with advanced weapons and smallpox.
Ancient Pyramids in Giza, Egypt
Khafre (l.) and Khufu (r.) are two of the three ancient Pyramids in Giza, Egypt. Khufu is the biggest, consisting of more than 2 million stones with some weighing 9 tons. The Pyramids, built as elaborate tombs for divine kings, date back to 2,550 BC. Modern Egyptologists believe that the Pyramids are made from stones dragged from quarries and, despite ancient Greek testimony, were built predominantly by skilled craftsmen rather than slave labor.
The Mayan Temple
According to the Mesoamerican Long Count Calendar, made famous by the ancient Mayan people, December 2012 marks the ending of the current baktun cycle. This little bit of information has many archeologists spooked. Some believe the Mayans were warning of a coming apocalypse, while others insist it’s simply a mathematical misconception.
The Legend of El Dorado
The Legend of El Dorado originates from the Muisca, who lived in the modern country of Colombia from 1000 to 1538 AD. In a ritual ceremony for their goddess, the tribal chief would cover himself in gold dust and jump into a lake as an offering. This spawned the legend of a lost golden city, which led Spanish conquistadors on a wild goose chase to nowhere.
Easter Island, also known as Rapa Nui, is remotely located 2,000 miles off the coast of Tahiti. The original settlers of the island were Polynesians who migrated to the far-off land between 400 and 600 BC. They built many shrines and statues, called moai, from stones quarried throughout the island including a volcano site. Researchers still question exactly how the large stones were moved.
The Bermuda Triangle
The Bermuda Triangle located in the Atlantic between Bermuda, Florida and Puerto Rico is a thief, stealing planes and boats right out of existence. The area got its name after Sgt. Howell Thompson (l.), along with 27 Navy airmen, vanished from the devilish spot during a routine flight in 1945. Rumors persist on a supernatural explanation, but many specialists blame hurricanes, a heavy Gulf Stream and human error.
The Nazca Lines
The Nazca Lines cover more than 190 square miles in the southern deserts of Peru. The mysterious shapes etched into the land rival football fields and predate the Incan Empire. The Las Manos figure (above) is 2,000 years old. Little is know about why the Nazca people constructed such vast pieces of sand art, some believe they are extraterrestrial in nature, while others claim they may have carried and pointed to sources of water.am and human error.
Area 51, located on Groom Lake in southern Nevada (c.), was founded in 1955 by the U.S. Air Force to develop and test new aircrafts such as the U-2 Spy Plane, A-12 Blackbird and F-117 Stealth Fighter. The secretive nature of the military base, combined with its classified aircraft research, helped conspiracy theorists imagine an installation filled with time-travel experimentation, UFO coverups and alien autopsies.
Sphinx of Giza, Egypt
Another Egyptian wonder, the Sphinx of Giza has the body of a lion and the head of a Pharaoh, believed by most to be that of king Khafre. It was carved from soft limestone, and has been slowly falling apart over the years. A popular theory of the missing nose claims Napoleon’s soldiers shot it off with a cannon in 1798, but early sketches discovered of the Sphinx without a nose predate Napoleon’s rampage.
The Loch Ness Monster
According to Scottish folklore, a mystical creature called a water horse lures small children to a watery grave by tricking them to ride on its sticky back. The Loch Ness Monster became an English wonder in 1933, after witness accounts made newspaper headlines. No hard evidence of the creature has ever been recorded with several pictures, including the one above, being proven as hoaxes.
The Fountain of Youth
Don Juan Ponce de Leon completed Spain’s claim on America in 1509, and soon after was made governor of Puerto Rico. Six years later, following Indian rumors, he traveled north to the island of Bimini in search of the Fountain of Youth. Bimini turned out to be the peninsula of Florida, and the fountain remained hidden until July 2006, when famed magician David Copperfield claimed the waters on his $50 million Exumas Island (c.) had healing properties.
Phylis Canion holds the head of what she is calling a Chupacabra at her home in Cuero, Tex. The strange-looking animal, first reported in Puerto Rico in 1995, apparently has a taste for chicken and goat blood. Although many pictures like the above might prove its existence, biologists assure none such creature exists.
The Ark of the Covenant
The Ark of the Covenant is described in the Bible as a wooden casket, gold plated, made for carrying the tablets of the Ten Commandments. The casket was carried throughout the desert and remained in the Israelite Temple until its destruction by the hand of the Babylonian Empire. Its whereabouts are still unknown, but Hollywood made its own version for Raiders of the Lost Ark.
The Stonehenge landscape of Salisbury Plain, England, has become a tourist hotspot. But before foreigners with windbreakers and cameras showed up, the area may have been a burial ground and ceremonial den dating back 5,000 years.
The Iron Pillar of Delhi
The Iron Pillar of Delhi is a 1,600-year-old, 22 feet high pillar located in the Qutb complex in India. The pillar, made from 98% wrought iron, has been astounding scientists by its ability to resist corrosion after all these years.
Stone Spheres in Costa Rica
Discovered in the early 1940s in Costa Rica during excavations by the United Fruit Company, these perfectly formed stone spheres date from 600 AD to the 16th century. Their makers and purpose still unconfirmed, many believe them to be some religious effigy made to worship the sun.
A humanoid with insect wings and crimson eyes, known as the Mothman, terrorized Point Pleasant, W.Va., during the late 1960s. No solid evidence exists of the creature, except for a handful of witness reports documented in paranormal-journalist John A Keel’s Mothman Prophecies.
According to legend, 250 years ago a Jersey woman by the name of Mrs. Leeds cried out in despair during her 13th pregnancy, Let it be the Devil! After childbirth, the baby was revealed to be a kangaroo-like creature with wings, and flew away to cause all sorts of Jersey Devil mischief. Today the Jersey Devil can be seen getting fans riled up during local hockey games.
The Tunguska Explosion of Russia
The Tunguska Explosion in Russia occurred around 7:14 a.m. on June 30, 1908. To this date, the exact cause of the explosion which leveled 80 million trees over 830 square miles remains a heated debate. Most believe it to be caused by a meteoroid fragment, others insist either a black hole or UFO origin.
The Lost City of Atlantis
The Lost City of Atlantis was introduced to the West 2,400 years ago by Plato, who claimed it to be the island home of an advanced society. Legend says it was sunk by an earthquake, with later interpretations as an underwater kingdom protected by mermaids. Its whereabouts still a mystery, recent underwater evidence suggests it was once apart of a larger landmass in Cyprus off the Mediterranean (c.), but the only true Atlantis exists in the Bahamas as a grand casino and resort hotel.
In archaeology, an artifact is an object recovered which may provide cultural interest and help in the understanding of human history. In the last 100 years, a large collection of important archeological discoveries have been made. Some of these artifacts have helped people understand the origins of life on Earth, while others have presented problems for scientists. An out-of-place artifact is an object of historical, archaeological, or paleontological interest found in a very unusual or seemingly impossible context. Hundreds of artifacts have been located and studied with some remarkable results. This article will examine ten rare archeological discoveries.
10. Jordan Lead Codices
On March 22, 2011, a man named David Elkington, who is a scholar of ancient religious archaeology, issued a press release stating that a hoard of ancient books had been discovered in Jordan. The books are made of lead and copper, probably dating from the 1st century AD. Elkington said that the discovery might be as important as the Dead Sea Scrolls. He also stated that the items were discovered 5 years ago in a cave by a Jordanian man and smuggled into Israel. The archeological find was described as 70 ring-bound books (codices) made of lead and copper. Many of the artifacts are sealed on all sides. Scrolls, tablets and other objects, including an incense bowl, were also found at the site.
Some of the words in the codices are written in a form of archaic Hebrew script with ancient messianic symbols. The story was quickly picked up by the BBC, the Daily Mail and other media outlets. The article by the BBC stated that “The books could be the earliest Christian writing in existence, surviving almost 2,000 years in a Jordanian cave. They could, just possibly, change our understanding of how Jesus was crucified and resurrected, and how Christianity was born.”
The Israeli man who currently owns the codices has denied smuggling them out of Jordan, and claims the books have been in his family for 100 years. The Jordanian government disagrees and says it will “exert all efforts at every level” to get the relics repatriated. The director of the Jordan’s Department of Antiquities, Ziad al-Saad, says the books might have been made by the followers of Jesus in the few decades immediately following his crucifixion. Philip Davies, Emeritus Professor of Old TestamentStudies at Sheffield University, says the most powerful evidence for a Christian origin for the codices lies in plates cast into a picture map of the holy city of Jerusalem.
A number of experts have urged skepticism about the books until further investigation can be conducted. Several scholars have pronounced the Jordan lead codices as fakes. One such publication is quoted, “The Greek is lifted nonsensically from an inscription published in 1958. The forger couldn’t tell the difference between the Greek letters alpha and lambda. The Hebrew script is taken from the same inscription. The Hebrew text in “code” is gibberish. The “Jesus” face is taken from a well-known mosaic. The charioteer is taken from a fake coin.” The facts surrounding the codices remain a controversial topic.
Marcahuasi is a plateau in the Andes Mountains located east of Lima, Peru. The area rises over the Rimac River. In 1952, a man named Daniel Ruzo made a remarkable discovery in the area. He found hundreds of stone figures that resemble human faces and animals, some 90 feet tall. The most famous formation was called The Monument to Humanity because it purportedly shows the major human races of the world. The mountain sized rock formations of Marcahuasi have created controversy in the scientific world. Many educated people have claimed that the structures were formed by natural erosion.
Some of the famous rock formations at Marcahuasi include the goddess Thueris the Anfichelidia, the valley of the seals, the lion of Africa, the vicuna, and the frog. After discovering the area, Daniel Ruzo made some bizarre accusations surrounding Marcahuasi. He wrote that the sculptures were made ??by a culture named “Masma” or “Fourth Humanity” almost 10.000 years ago. According to Ruzo, every 8,500 years the planet Earth suffers disruptions that threaten the existence of all living beings. Ruzo published articles stating that Marcahuasi was the site selected to preserve the knowledge of humanity. Man-made or not, Marcahuasi remains a remarkable archeological discovery that has become a popular tourist destination.
8. Rat King
Rat kings are formed when a number of rats become intertwined at their tails and get stuck together with blood, dirt, ice, excrement or simply knotted. The animals grow together forming one large beast. The earliest report of a rat king comes from 1564. Historically, the rat king was viewed as a bad omen, and probably with good reason. Rats carry a number of diseases, perhaps most notably plague, so it is understandable that people would associate bad luck with a large cluster of rats. Diseases tend to arise more readily when animals are confined close together, so the location of a rat king could be a breeding ground of disease.
Specimens of purported rat kings are rare and kept in some museums. The largest well-known mummified rat king was found in 1828 in a miller’s fireplace at Buchheim, Germany. It consists of 32 rats. The rat king is currently located in the museum Mauritianum in Altenburg (Thuringia). In 1930, a specimen was found in New Zealand that is displayed in the Otago Museum in Dunedin. It was composed of immature Rattus rattus whose tails were entangled by horse hair. Relatively few rat kings have been discovered in history. Depending on the source, the number of reported instances varies between 35 and 50 finds.
The occurrence is particularly associated with Germany, where the majority of rat kings have been located. In April 1929, a group of young forest mice was reported joined in Holstein, Germany, and there have been sightings of squirrel kings. Most rat kings show formations of callus at the fractures of their tails, which according to proponents show that the animals survived for an extended period of time with their tails tangled. A mummified rat king can help provide an understanding of the movement of rat populations. Sightings have been sporadic in modern history, with some rat kings being reported alive. The most recent claim comes from an Estonian farmer’s discovery in the Võrumaa region on January 16, 2005.
7. Sea of Galilee Boat
The Sea of Galilee Boat is an ancient fishing boat from the 1st century CE (the time of Jesus Christ), discovered in 1986 on the north-west shore of the Sea of Galilee in Israel. The remains of the boat were found by brothers Moshe and Yuval Lufan, fishermen from Kibbutz Ginnosar. The brothers are amateur archaeologists with an interest in discovering artifacts from Israel’s past. They found the ship after a drought reduced the water-level of the lake. The men reported their discovery to the authorities who sent out a team of archaeologists to investigate.
Realizing that the remains of the boat was of tremendous historical importance to Jews and Christians alike, a secret archaeological dig followed, undertaken by members of Kibbutz Ginosar, the Israel Antiquities Authority, and numerous volunteers. The boat measures at 27 feet (8.27 meters) long, 7.5 feet (2.3 meters) wide and with a maximum preserved height of 4.3 feet (1.3 meters). Excavating the boat from the mud without damaging it was a difficult process that lasted 12 days and nights. The boat was then submerged in a chemical bath for 7 years before it could be displayed at the Yigal Allon Museum in Kibbutz Ginosar.
The Sea of Galilee boat is made primarily of cedar planks joined together by pegged mortise-and-tenon joints and nails. It has ten different wood types, suggesting either a wood shortage or that it was made of scrap wood. The boat is historically important to Jews because it is an example of the type of boat used by their ancestors in the 1st century. Previously only references made by Roman authors, the Bible and mosaics have provided archeologists insight into the construction of these types of vessels. The boat is also important to Christians because it was the type of vessel that Jesus and his disciples used, several of whom were fishermen.
Roy Chapman Andrews was an American explorer, adventurer and naturalist who became the director of the American Museum of Natural History. He is primarily known for leading a series of expeditionsthrough the fragmented China into the Gobi Desert and Mongolia. In the summer of 1923, Andrews began his third Asiatic expedition in the Gobi Desert, while in Mongolia, a member of his team named Kan Chuen Pao discovered an enormous skull of an unidentified mammal. The lower jaw of the creature was not found. After investigation, the mammal was given the classification of Andrewsarchus mongoliensis.
Andrewsarchus lived during the Eocene epoch, roughly 45 and 36 million years ago. They had a long snout with large, sharp teeth and flat cheek teeth that may have been used to crush bones. Because Andrewsarchus is only known from a single skull, whether it was an active predator or merely a large scavenger is open to debate. The artifact is an enormous skull (32.8 in/83 cm long and 22/56 cm wide). If Andrewsarchus was proportioned in the same manner as Mesonyx obtusidens, it had a length from the snout to the back of the pelvis of about 11 feet (3.4 m) and a height from the ground to the shoulder or middle of the back of about 6 feet (1.8 m). In round numbers, it is possible that the creature may have been the largest land-dwelling carnivorous mammal known. The cranium is twice the length of a modern Alaskan brown bear and about triple the length of an American wolf.
Studies have placed Andrewsarchus in the 1000 kg (2200 lb) size range, but if the animals were robust, some specimens might have weighed up to 4000 pounds. The appearance and behavioral patterns of Andrewsarchus are virtually unknown and have been the topic of debate among paleontologists ever since it was first discovered. Andrewsarchus possessed some of the strongest jaws ever evolved in a land mammal, well able to bite through large bones if needed. Andrewsarchus may have fed on beached primitive whales, shellfish and hard-shelled turtles, as well as contemporary large mammals. The creatures were related to cloven-hoofed animals, such as pigs and deer, so they probably had hooves rather than paws.
5. Uluburun Shipwreck
The Uluburun shipwreck is a Late Bronze Age shipwreck dated to the 14th century BCE. It was discovered off Uluburun (Grand Cape) situated about 6 miles southeast of Ka?, in south-western Turkey. The wreck was first discovered in the summer of 1982 by Mehmed Çakir, a local sponge diver from Yalikavak, a village near Bodrum. Between the years of 1984 to 1994, eleven consecutive campaigns took place totaling 22,413 dives, and revealing one of the most spectacular Bronze Age treasure troves ever discovered in the Mediterranean Sea. On its final journey, the Uluburun ship was sailing to the region west of Cyprus. The objects aboard the ship range from northern Europe to Africa, as far west as Sicily, and as far east as Mesopotamia, exhibiting products of nine or ten different cultures.
The ship, which was about 50 feet long, was built of cedar in the ancient shell-first tradition, with pegged tenon joints securing planks to each other and to the keel. Some of the hull planks were preserved under the cargo. They were fastened with pegged mortise-and-tenon joints. Upon discovery, there has been a detailed examination of Uluburun’s hull, but unfortunately no evidence of its framing. The ship carried 24 stone anchors, which are of a type almost completely unknown in the Aegean. The Uluburun ship’s cargo consisted mostly of raw materials and trade items.
The artifacts discovered include copper cargo totaling ten tons, approximately 175 glass ingots of cobalt blue turquoise and lavender, ivory in the form of whole and partial elephant trunks, hippopotamus teeth, Cypriot pottery, a ton of terebinthine resin in amphorae, a large collection of gold artifacts, ebony logs from Egypt, and ancient weapons. The ship carried one ton of tin. The tin from Uluburun is, at this time, the only pre-Roman tin with a reasonable provenance. The Uluburun shipwreck has fed into virtually every aspect of research on trade and society in the Late Bronze Age Aegean and Levant. It has helped historians understand the intensity of commercial trade during the Late Bronze Age.
4. Kabwe Skull
Kabwe skull is a hominin fossil frequently classified as belonging to Homo rhodesiensis. In 1921, the cranium was found in a lead and zinc mine in Broken Hill, Northern Rhodesia (now Kabwe, Zambia) by Tom Zwiglaar, a Swiss miner. In addition to the cranium, an upper jaw from another individual, a sacrum, a tibia, and two femur fragments were found. The remains have been dated to between 125,000 and 300,000 years old. The skull is from an extremely robust individual, and has the comparatively largest brow-ridges of any known hominid remains. It was described as having a broad face similar to Homo neanderthalensis (large nose and thick protruding brow ridges), and has been interpreted as an “African Neanderthal.”
Research into the Kabwe skull has pointed to several features intermediate between modern Homo sapiens and Neanderthal. The skull has cavities in ten of the upper teeth. It is considered the oldest occurrence of cavities for a hominid. Pitting indicates significant infection before death and implies a cause attributable to dental or chronic ear infection. A number of Internet sites have described the fact that the skull displays a circular hole about 8 mm in diameter located on the side of the head. The injury doesn’t have radial split-lines that would be visible had the hole been made by a cold projectile, such as a spear. It looks similar to a bullet hole. Sasquatch enthusiasts have become interested by the facial features of the creature, including a pronounced brow-ridge, large eyes, and a pointed head.
3. Tomb of Philip II of Macedon
Vergina is a small town in northern Greece, located in the peripheral unit of Imathia, Central Macedonia. The town became internationally famous in 1977, when the Greek archaeologist Manolis Andronikos unearthed what he claimed was the burial site of the kings of Macedon, including the tomb of Philip II, who is the father of Alexander the Great. In 1977, Andronikos undertook a six-week study near Vergina and found four buried chambers, which he identified as undisturbed tombs. Three more tombs were found in 1980. The discovery was a defining moment in archeology, but the identification of the tomb as that of Philip II has been disputed.
The most widely published theory is that one of the tombs discovered is that of Philip II of Macedon. A 2010 study by Musgrave, et al. found that the cranium of the male skeleton discovered was deformed by a possible trauma. The finding is consistent with the history of Philip II who suffered a facial injury during his lifetime. The other tombs in the same complex are of great importance. Some of the artifacts discovered were dated to the time of Alexander III. It is plausible that at one time, before plundered, one of the tombs contained the personal items of Phillip II son, Alexander the Great.
Since the archeological discovery, a museum was inaugurated in 1993. It was built in a way to protect the tombs, exhibit the artifacts and show the tumulus as it was before the excavations. The tomb of Philip II was separated into two rooms. The main room included a marble sarcophagus, and in it was a larnax made of 24 carat gold and weighing 11 kilograms. Inside the golden larnax were the bones of the dead and a golden wreath of 313 oak leaves and 68 acorns. In 1978, another burial site was discovered near the tomb of Philip II. It has been reported to belong to Alexander IV of Macedon, the son of Alexander the Great.
2. L’Anse aux Meadows
Helge Ingstad was a Norwegian explorer. In 1960, Ingstad and his wife Anne Stine, an archaeologist, discovered remnants of a Viking settlement in L’Anse aux Meadows, located in the Province of Newfoundland in Canada. L’Anse aux Meadows is the only known site of a Norse village in Canada, and in North America outside of Greenland. It remains the only widely accepted instance of a pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact. The land is notable for its possible connection with the attempted colony of Vinland established by Leif Ericson around 1000.
L’Anse aux Meadows is conclusive evidence that the Greenlandic Norsemen found a way across the Atlantic Ocean to North America, roughly 500 years before Christopher Columbus and John Cabot. Archaeologists determined that the site is of Norse origin due to the similarities between the characteristics of structures and artifacts in Greenland and Iceland. L’Anse aux Meadows represents the farthest known extent of European exploration and settlement of the New World before the voyages of Christopher Columbus.
The remains of eight buildings were located at L’Anse aux Meadows. They are believed to have been constructed of sod placed over a wooden frame. Artifacts found at the site include a large collection of common everyday Norse items, as well as objects related to iron working, carpentry and boat repair. In addition to the European settlement, evidence of at least five or six separate native occupations have been identified at L’Anse aux Meadows, the oldest dated at roughly 6,000 years ago. Archaeologists believe that the site was inhabited by the Norse for only a relatively short period of time. This fact caused Ingstad to speculate that the Vikings traveled farther into North America.
Two Icelandic sagas, commonly called the Saga of the Greenlanders and the Saga of Eric the Red, describe the experiences of Norse Greenlanders who discovered and attempted to settle land to the west of Greenland, identified by them as Vinland. Recent archaeological studies have suggested that L’Anse aux Meadows is not Vinland, but was located within a land called Vinland that spread farther south, extending to the St. Lawrence River and New Brunswick. In 2011, studies were released that show some Icelanders may be direct descendants of Native Americans. The data was gathered from analyzing a type of DNA passed only from mother to child. Scientists found more than 80 living Icelanders with a genetic variation similar to one found in Native Americans.
Ardi is the designation of the fossilized skeletal remains of a female Ardipithecus ramidus, an early human-like species 4.4 million years old. It is the most complete early hominid specimen in existence, with most of the skull, teeth, pelvis, hands and feet intact. Fossils of Ardi were first found in Ethiopia in 1994, but it took 15 years for scientists to assess their significance. Ardi is a more complete set of remains than the Australopithecus Lucy, which was discovered in 1974. She is a more primitive hominid standing at 4 feet (120 cm) tall and weighing around 110 pounds (50 kg), Ardi was about 6 inches taller than Lucy but almost double her weight. The skeleton was discovered at a site called Aramis in the arid badlands near the Awash River in Ethiopia.
Ardi has feet that are better suited for walking than chimpanzees. Her canine teeth are smaller than humans, and equal in size between males and females. This suggests reduced male-to-male conflict, pair-bonding, and increased parental investment among species. ”Thus, fundamental reproductive and social behavioral changes probably occurred in hominids long before they had enlarged brains and began to use stone tools.” The remains shows evidence of small skull capacity akin to that of apes and a bipedal upright walk akin to that of humans, providing further evidence supporting the view that bipedalism preceded increase in brain size in human evolution. Researchers have inferred from the form of Ardi’s limbs and the presence of her opposable big toe that she was a facultative biped, bipedal when moving on the ground, but quadrupedal when moving in trees.
In trees, Ardi was nothing like modern apes. Modern chimps and gorillas have evolved limb anatomy specialized to climbing vertically up tree trunks, hanging and swinging from branches, and knuckle-walking on the ground. The wrists and finger joints of Ardi were highly flexible. As a result she would have walked on her palms as she moved in the trees. Wear patterns and isotopes have suggested a diet that includes fruits, nuts, and other forest foods. On October 1, 2009, the journal Science published an open-access collection of eleven articles, detailing many aspects of A. ramidus and its environment. “What Ardi tells us is there was this vast intermediate stage in our evolution that nobody knew about,” said Owen Lovejoy, an anatomist at Kent State University in Ohio.
We have all heard about Eye-Popping Man or Lee Redmond and her 28 ft and 4.5 in long nails. Dennis Avner is widely known as Cat Man, the American who underwent many bizarre surgeries to look like a tiger, and Garry Turner is the man with the stretchiest skin on earth. All these Guinness World Records are hugely popular, so here’s a top 10 list of other unusual Guinness World Records.
10. Heaviest pumpkin
Guinness World Records confirmed on October 09, 2010 that a gigantic pumpkin grown in Wisconsin was officially the world’s heaviest. It weighed 1,810 lb 8 oz and was unveiled by Chris Stevens at the Stillwater Harvest Fest in Minnesota. Stevens’ pumpkin was 85 pounds heavier than the previous record, another huge pumpkin grown in Ohio. The proud farmer said his secret is a precise mixture of rain, cow manure, good soil, seaweed and fish emulsion. Some of the world’s heaviest pumpkins, including the record-holder were on public display at the Bronx Botanical Gardens in New York for several weeks.
9. Most T-shirts worn at once
Believe it or not, there is a record also for this category. Krunoslav Budiseli? set a new world record on May 22, 2010 for wearing 245 T-shirts at the same time. The man from Croatia was officially recognized as the new record holder by Guinness World of Records after he managed to put on 245 different T-shirts in less than two hours. The T-shirts weighted 68 kg and Budiseli? said he began struggling around T-shirt no. 120. He dethroned the Swedish Guinness record holder who wore 238 T-shirts.
8. Most living generations
Did you ever wonder what is the Guinness World Record for most living generations in one family? Seven is the answer.
The ultimate authority on record- breaking mentions on the website that the youngest great-great-great-great-grandparent of this family was Augusta Bung “aged 109 years 97 days, followed by her daughter aged 89, her grand-daughter aged 70, her great-grand-daughter aged 52, her great-great grand-daughter aged 33 and her great-great-great grand-daughter aged 15 on the birth of her great-great-great-great grandson on 21 January 1989.”
7. Longest ears on a dog
A bloodhound from Illinois has the longest ears ever measured on a dog. The right ear is 13.75 in long and the left one 13.5 in. The dog named Tigger earned this title in 2004 and is owned by Christina and Bryan Flessner.
Mr. Jeffries is the previous record holder of this title. Each of his ear measured approximately 11.5 in long. His grandfather used to hold this amazing world record, but when he died Mr. Jeffries took over.
6. Largest horn circumference – steer
Lurch was the record holder of the world’s largest horn circumference, 37.5 in. He was an African Watusi steer born October 11, 1995 on a ranch in Missouri. Janice Wolf adopted Lurch when he was only 5 weeks old. Unfortunately, the steer died last year of cancer. A form of cancer at the base of one of Lurch’s horns ended the 15 years long beautiful friendship between him and Janice
5. Most body piercings in one session
In May 2010, Chris Elliot and Tyson Turk (USA) set the world record for most body piercings in one session: 3100 in 6 hours and 15 minutes. It all happened at the Tyson Turk Tattoo Studio, Bedford, Texas. Chris and Tyson shattered the previous record of 1015 piercings in 7 hours and 55 minutes set by British Kam Ma and Charlie Wilson.
4. Most people inside a soap bubble
The Discovery Science Center in Santa Ana, California celebrated this year the 15th anniversary of the BubbleFest. A bubble’s math principles and science were presented and demonstrated at the three-weeks long exhibition. The intriguing Bubble Show was also part of the program. Fan Yang and Deni Yang impressed the audience with their awesome skills for bubble making. The Yang family collaborated with the Discovery Science Center to set a new Guinness World Record for most people inside a soap bubble and they succeeded.
The family that has been working with soap bubbles for 27 years created a huge soap bubble and got 118 people inside it. The record was set on April 4, 2011.
3. Fastest individual 1 mile run wearing swim fins
American Ashrita Furman, nicknamed Mr. Versatility, is no stranger to Guinness World of Records. He set more than 340 official Guinness records since 1979 and currently holds 113, including the record for fastest mile run in swim fins: 7 min 56 sec. Ashrita achieved this record in 2010 at the Marswiese Sportzentrum in Vienna, Austria.
Ashrita Furman has set records in more than 35 different countries, on all seven continents. Marco Frigatti, head of the global records management team for GWR, declared that Ashrita won “the official record for The most current Guinness world records held at the same time by an individual.”
2. Fastest 100m running on all fours
The 2008 Guinness World Records Day was, according to GWR, their biggest day of record-breaking ever, with more than 290000 people taking part in record attempts in 15 different countries. Kenichi Ito’s record attempt was part of this special day. He is just another example of Japanese with ‘super powers’. His ‘super power’ is to run with great speed on all fours. Kenichi Ito run 100m on all fours in 18.58 seconds. The Japanese set this record at Setagaya Kuritsu Sogo Undojyo, Tokyo, in 2008.
1. Heaviest weight pulled with eye sockets
Believe it or not, the heaviest weight pulled with eye sockets is 907 pounds (411.65 kilograms). This extreme record was set by Chayne Hultgren, also known as The Space Cowboy. The Australian achieved the record in Milano on the set of “Lo Show Dei Record” in 2009.
Space Cowboy has won the Street Performance World Championship twice, in 2006 and 2007. One of the many acts that brought him large media coverage is when he swallowed 27 swords decorated with the flags of all European Union’s members. The record was set on the day when Ireland rejected the Lisbon Treaty on European Union reform.
World’s Smallest Dog: 12.4 cm (4.9-inch) tall
At 1.4 pounds and 4.9 inches tall, Ducky, a yappy short-coat Chihuahua from Charlton (Massachusetts, USA), holds the Guinness World Record for the world’s smallest living dog (by height). Ducky succeeds Danka Kordak of Slovakia, a Chihuahua who measured 5.4 inches tall. The smallest dog ever, according to Guinness, was a dwarf Yorkshire terrier who stood 2.8 inches tall.
World’s Smallest Snake: 10.1 cm (4-inch) long
Leptotyphlops carlae is the world’s smallest species of snake, with adults averaging just under four inches in length. Found on the Caribbean island of Barbados, the species –which is as thin as a spaghetti noodle and small enough to rest comfortably on a U.S. quarter– was discovered by Blair Hedges.
World’s Smallest Fish: 7.9 mm (0.3-inch) long
On January 2006, the world’s smallest fish was discovered on the Indonesian island of Sumatra: a member of the carp family of fish, thePaedocypris progenetica. It is the world’s smallest vertebrate or backboned animal; only 7.9 mm (0.3 inches) long.
The title, however, is contested by 6.2 mm (0.2 in) long male anglerfish Photocorynus spiniceps (not technically a fish but a sexual parasite) and the 7 mm (0.27 in) long male stout infantfish Schindleria brevipinguis.
World’s Smallest Horse: 43.18 cm (17-inch) tall
The little horse was born to Paul and Kay Goessling, who specialize in breeding miniature horses, but even for the breed Thumbelina is particularly small: she is thought to be a dwarf-version of the breed. At just 60 lb and 17-inch tall, the five-year-old Thumbelina is the world’s smallest horse.
World’s Smallest Cat: 15.5 cm (6.1-inch) high and 49 cm (19.2-inch) long
Meet Mr. Peebles. He lives in central Illinois, is two years old, weighs about three pounds and is the world’s smallest cat! The cat’s small stature was verified by the Guinness Book of World Records on 2004.
World’s Smallest Hamster: 2.5 cm (0.9-inch) tall
Only slightly bigger than a 50p piece, PeeWee is the smallest hamster in the world. Weighing less than an ounce, the golden hamster stopped growing when he was three weeks old – his five brothers and sisters went on to measure between 4in and 5in.
World’s Smallest Chameleon: 1.2 cm (0.5-inch) long
The Brookesia Minima is the world’s smallest species of chameleon. This one is just half an inch. Found on the rainforest floor of Nosy Be Island off the north-west coast of Madagascar, females tend to be larger than males.
World’s Smallest Lizard: 16 mm (0.6-inch) long
So small it can curl up on a dime or stretch out on a quarter, a typical adult of the species, whose scientific name is Sphaerodactylus ariasae is only about 16 millimeters long, or about three quarters of an inch, from the tip of the snout to the base of the tail. It shares the title of “smallest” with another lizard species named Sphaerodactylus parthenopion, discovered in 1965 in the British Virgin Islands.
World’s Smallest Cattle: 81 cm (31-inch) height
The world’s smallest cattle is a rare breed of an Indian zebu called theVechur cow. The average height of this breed of cattle is 31 to 35 inches (81 to 91 cm). The photo above shows a 16 year old Vechur cattle as compared to a 6 year old HF cross-breed cow.
World’s Smallest Seahorse: 16 mm (0.6-inch) long
The creature, known as Hippocampus denise, is typically just 16 millimetres long – smaller than most fingernails. Some were found to be just 13 mm long. H. denise lives in the tropical waters of the western Pacific Ocean, between 13 and 90 metres beneath the surface.